Raphael's fresco School Of Athens
Sistine Chapel (Vatican, Italy), 1511

Plato and Aristotle center, heads outlined against the sky, amidst the intellectual prominence of the greatest city of the ancient world.

LEFT: Pythagoras (sitting with open book), Parmenides (standing with open book), Heraclitus (seated, writing). Behind them higher up, Alcibiades (as soldier), Xenophon, and another, listening to Socrates.


MIDDLE: Close-up of the idealist Plato, holding his Timaeus,and the proponent of the mean, Aristotle, holding The Ethics.


RIGHT: Euclid conducting a proof, with the back of tan-robed astronomer Ptolemy, holding a globe, beside him.


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